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如何有效防控棋牌类App涉赌行为

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彭新林

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熊旭

怎样规范网络棋牌类赌博

北京师范大学中国刑法研究所副所长 彭新林

北京市友邦律师事务所律师 熊旭

专家观点

◇网络赌博主要分为两大类:一类是传统的赌博转移到网络上;另一类是网络游戏中衍生的赌博活动。

◇如果游戏运营商公开允许玩家将游戏代币兑换为人民币,或者允许游戏币在内部流通,即可判定为赌博游戏。

◇平台可以设置提示,对于经过投诉或检测确定有违法违规行为的App,给予下架处理,并予以公告,警示App商家规范运营。

“要不起”“三带一”,这是常见的手机App网络斗地主的声音。因操作方便、玩法简单,像上述网络斗地主这样的扑克牌、麻将类游戏受到大家的喜爱,公交车、地铁上,总能看到拿着手机玩此类游戏的乘客。但是,作为一项放松的活动,游戏如果和赌博联系起来,后果会很严重。据媒体报道,上海某公司职员小李,喜欢玩网游德州扑克,月入万余元的他,不到半年就输光积蓄,还欠了债。笔者在苹果商店和安卓平台上搜索发现,扑克圈、德州约局、微赛德扑、扑克部等,都可以自由随意下载。就如何区分哪些棋牌游戏App涉嫌赌博?怎样才能对其进行有效监管与打击?相关专家认为,由于棋牌类App容易涉嫌赌博违法行为,网络平台应提供投诉与标记服务。

网络赌博适用于传统赌博的定罪标准

网络赌博主要分为两大类:一类是传统的赌博转移到网络上,利用网络互动性强、隐蔽性强、支付方便等特点开展赌博活动;另一类是网络游戏中衍生的赌博活动,即“变相的赌博类网络游戏”,涉及网络游戏服务、虚拟货币、第三方交易平台等多个环节,赌资往往不直接与人民币挂钩。与前一类赌博形式相比,后者在界定上存在一定的困难。对此,北京师范大学中国刑法研究所副所长彭新林指出,“App线上赌博和线下赌博的本质是一样的。”在他看来,两者只存在赌博行为发生场所的不同,其犯罪构成是一样的,只是表现形式不一样。对于普通玩家,在法律上可被视为参赌人员。北京市友邦律师事务所律师熊旭表示,构成赌博罪,客观上以聚众赌博、开设赌场、以赌博为业三种行为为限。所谓聚众赌博,是指组织、招引多人进行赌博,本人从中抽头渔利,这种人俗称赌头,赌头本人不一定直接参加赌博。只要组织3人以上赌博,抽头渔利数额累计达到5000元以上的,或者组织3人以上赌博,赌资数额累计达到5万元以上的,或者组织3人以上赌博,参赌人数累计达到20人以上的,均可被认定为聚众赌博。所谓以赌博为业,是指嗜赌成性,以赌博所得为其生活来源。而开设赌场,是指以营利为目的,提供场所、设定赌博方式、提供赌具、筹码、资金等组织赌博的行为。只要具备以上其中一种行为,即符合赌博罪的客观要件。熊旭进一步表示,上述行为只要以获取钱财为目的,赌博罪就可以成立,至于是否实际获得了钱财,不影响赌博罪的构成。

彭新林认为,根据最高人民法院、最高人民检察院《关于办理赌博刑事案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释》规定,对那种带有少量彩头的打麻将、玩扑克等娱乐活动,不以赌博行为查处,而仅是将其看作一般赌博行为,可予以治安管理处罚。如若参赌人员彼此相熟,且赌博金额不大,应当认定为娱乐行为。但若明知他人实施赌博犯罪活动,而为其提供资金、计算机网络、通讯、费用结算等直接帮助的,以赌博罪的共犯论处。

如何判断App游戏涉嫌赌博

在很多提供扑克、麻将游戏类App中,玩家可通过充值购买游戏币作为筹码,每局游戏开始之前,平台也会收取一定筹码作为入场费。平台的这类行为遭到很多玩家质疑:其是否属于刑法所明令禁止的赌博行为?

“判断软件商店提供下载的App是以娱乐为目的的游戏,还是打着游戏名目的博彩活动,可以从参赌人数多少、投入资金大小、开发商、运营商抽头渔利的数额以及能否提现等方面来评判。”彭新林解释说,在大部分游戏中,玩家都可以用人民币购买游戏代币,但如果某款游戏运营商公开允许玩家反向将游戏代币兑换为人民币,或者允许游戏币在内部流通,即可判定为赌博游戏;运营商如果以固定比例从牌局抽水,即无论玩家输赢,作为庄家的游戏运营商都能固定从牌局获得一定比例的代币时,即可认定为App涉赌;如果App未设置下注总额和下注次数,使游戏玩家能够不断投入资金,则有涉赌嫌疑。

熊旭认为,玩家充值兑换来的金币等筹码和赌博中的筹码本质是一样的,都属于赌资。因为这些虚拟筹码是玩家用现金兑换而来,并可以兑换成现金,二者都是玩家在“博弈”开始前代表现金下注的道具,“博弈”结束后用以结算现金的依据。而游戏前的开局“扣筹码”与赌博中的“抽水”性质是一样的,都是涉嫌赌博组织者或开设赌场者从控制的赌局中“抽头”的非法获利行为。“收取可以兑换现金的数字筹码之所以被大量App运营者采用,是因为这种方式既能让App运营方和玩家操作方便,又比较隐蔽地掩盖了涉嫌赌博的行为,导致打击难度加大。”

据笔者了解,App上玩家充值的筹码,一般都在玩家的账户里,App运营者设置的系统会自动根据规则增加或扣除,而且App运营者后台可以看到和控制玩家账户的筹码情况。但传统赌博中的筹码一般是实物筹码,赌场的组织者和设立者一般在将筹码兑换给参与者后,对赌博参与者的筹码情况不能直接控制和知悉。

“购买游戏筹码需要投入一定量的资金,有些App按比例收取少量购买费用,是合理的。但如果购买数额较大,且平台本身没有设置封顶,也可被认定为赌博。”彭新林说。

平台应提供投诉与标记服务

在彭新林看来,App提供虚拟道具兑换预付卡、充值、消费服务,已经违反了文化部关于网络游戏运营企业不得向用户提供虚拟道具兑换法定货币的服务,不得为使用游客模式登录的网络游戏用户提供游戏内充值或者消费服务的规定。为此,他建议相关部门和软件商店加强监管,防止正常的经营行为变成赌博行为;当发现游戏平台可能涉嫌赌博等违法行为时,用户也应积极报警或向网络监管部门举报。

熊旭建议,软件商店可以改进功能以强化对App的有效监管,从源头净化App移动互联网空间。对于选入软件商店的App进行初步筛选,查明是否有涉嫌违法行为的功能;同时引进、开发先进的移动互联网应用安全监测平台,这一平台能对应用权限信息、行为信息、内容违规信息等进行检测,并自动发现应用中包含的恶意行为和违规内容并输出检测报告。此外,熊旭认为,软件商店可以像标记电话号码为中介、诈骗电话那样,为App提供标记可能。对于通过投诉发现或者审查检测App有违法违规可疑行为的,平台可以设置标记,提示玩家该App有哪些可疑行为。对于经过投诉或检测确定有违法违规行为的App,给予下架处理,并予以公告,警示App商家规范运营,提示玩家和用户注意风险,维护社会安全。

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